dictyota belongs to which algae

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Tetrasporangial sori without indusium. Fertile and sterile zones equal in width. ArticleMetrics. The hot plate test antinociceptive effects observed in these two studies suggest that these sulfated polysaccharides could have better activities on central nervous system pain. The same seaweed produces the AF agent bifurcane. All have branches that fork near their ends. As previously discussed, dictyotene, a pheromone, is secreted by the egg to attract sperm. Wet biomass values in Playa El Chivo reef were lower than in the Sabana-Camagüey reefs, probably due to the high water turbidity, and the different seasons in which sampling was conducted. Brown algae are mainly represented by Sargassum hystrix, Lobophora variegata and Dictyota spp. Dictyopteris pacifica (Yendo) I.K. Medullary cells 10–20 μm thick, 25 μm long, cortical cells 10 × 10–25 μm; in the upper portion of the thallus, medullary cells 20 μm thick, 45 μm wide, cortical cells 12.5 μm thick, 22.5 μm wide. From D. dichotoma collected near Sicily, Italy, four dolabellanes (40–43) were isolated, displaying activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.68 Moreover, 40 exhibited significant in vitro activity against influenza and adenoviruses.69 As with 36–39, the relative stereochemistries of dolabellanes 40–43 were determined by NOE. Distribution. It is therefore logical that most of the AF compounds described in the literature are synthesised by these groups. algae belonging to Rhodophyceae (Corallina officinalis), Phaeophyceae (Cystoseira barbata, D. dichotoma, Halopteris filicina, Cladostephus spongiosusf. In habitat, the upper subtidal zone, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012. Hainan Island, Luhuitou, April 2012. (2004) isolated diterpenes from Bifurcaria bifurcata that inhibited the growth of marine bacteria and fungi. Distribution. There are studies concerning the antimicrobial and antifungal activities of marine algae collected from Turkey, such as Phaeophyceae (Dictyopteris membranaceae, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira compressa, Cystoseira mediterranea, Halopteris scoparia, Dictyota dichotoma, Colpomenia sinuosa, Ectocarpus siliculosus, Padina pavonica, Dictyota linearis), Rhodophyceae (Jania rubens, Acanthophora najadiformis, Laurencia papillosa, Hypnea musciformis, Gracilaria gracilis, Ceramium rubrum), and Chlorophyceae (Enteromorpha linza, Ulva rigida) (Erturk and Tas, 2011; Taskin et al., 2007; Tuney et al., 2007; Haliki et al., 2005; Karabay-Yavasoglu et al., 2007). Growing on rocks of sandy shores, in the upper subtidal zone, on open coasts with strong wave action. Titlyanov, ... Hui Huang, in Coral Reef Marine Plants of Hainan Island, 2017, Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kützing) De Paula and De Clerck. Common Name. Distribution. Distribution. Inset: habit of dry pressed old specimen. Sporangial sori scattered over both surfaces. 2008). Attachment by stypose holdfast. Kubanek et al. Some species of the order Ulvales, Amphiroa sp., Dictyopteris delicatula, and cyanobacteria were abundant in polluted areas of the coast of Havana City. Several seaweed sulfated polysaccharides have been reported for their antinociceptive properties. Ganti, Kim, Bhattarai, and Shin (2006) demonstrated the AF activity of fats and phthalic acid derivatives isolated from Sargassum confusum. The marine brown algae of the East Aegean Sea and Dardanelles – I. Ectocarpaceae, Pylaiellaceae, Chordariaceae, Elachistaceae and Giraudiaceae. Haploid aplanospores or tetraspores are usually produced on mature sporophytes. A reduced nociception linked to lectin treatment was measured by the von Frey method (da Conceição Rivanor et al., 2014). Recently, several new diterpenes have been isolated from different species of Dictyota (Ghada S. E. Abou-El-Wafa et al., 2013). They are unicellular photosynthetic flagellated algae. 2. These compounds inhibited bacterial attachment with CC50 < 0.38 ng/cm2 for DMSP and <0.1 ng/cm2 and <1.66 ng/cm2 for proline. ), and approximately 60% of them have been found on coral reefs (data from C. Jiménez, B. Martínez-Daranas, A. M. Suárez, J. Trelles and D. Zúñiga). Distribution. One genus in this order is calcareous, Padina, the only calcareous member of this phylum.. Dictyota dominates 70% of the benthos biomass in the Florida Keys reef tract. Lamouroux) Womersley ex Oliveira. Surface cells and sporangia. Heterofucan from Dictyota menstrualis was reported to have antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing tests while the hot plate test showed no effect in mice (Albuquerque et al., 2013). Some members of the species secrete specific terpenoids such as pachydictyol to inhibit grazing by fish, amphipods, and sea urchins (Lee, 2008). Brown Algae. In habitat, Hainan Island, Luhuitou, the upper subtidal zone (2 m depth). (1992) threshold values for excessive algal proliferation. Europe, South America, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. The apical portion of the frond is acute and has an entire margin. Dictyota is a genus of seaweed in the Dictyotaceae family. Medullary cells rectangular, 110–140 μm wide, 125–155 μm thick, colorless, longitudinally elongated. With this result, it is established that Dictyota pinnatifida belongs to the group of algae producing prenylated germacrenes and xeniane diterpenes. 1. 3. [1] Members of this order generally prefer warmer waters than other brown algae. According to AlgaeBase, there are more than 70 current Dictyota species. 1. Reproductive organs arranged in concentric rows on ventral surface above every hair zone. Average omega-3 consumption in Turkey for 19- to 30-year-old males and females was found to be 1.59 and 1.22 g, respectively; for 31- to 50-year-old males and females it was 1.51 and 1.18 g, respectively; for 51- to 64-year-old males and females it was 1.32 and 1.08 g, respectively; for 65- to 74-year-old males and females it was 1.13 and 0.92 g, respectively; and for males and females older than age 75 years it was 1.07 and 0.83 g, respectively (Ministry of Health, 2014). In habitat, the upper subtidal zone, Hainan Island, Luhuitou. This approach takes into consideration key plant attributes and ecological characteristics, such as the form of the plant, size, plant toughness, photosynthetic ability and growth, grazing resistance etc. In previous studies, our group has indicated that the diterpenes from Dictyota species may play an important role as taxonomic markers (e.g., Europe, South and Central America, Atlantic islands, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (Japan, China, Korea, Far East of Russia: Peter the Great Bay; Sakhalin Island and Moneron Island), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. Inset: Densely matted turf in the low intertidal zone. Seven dolabellane diterpenoids, 298–304 (Ioannou et al., 2012), were obtained from Dilophus spiralis. Margins entire, spiny, or proliferous. We reassessed the taxonomy of dentate Dictyota species formerly attributed to D. ciliolata and D. crenulata. Antheriadia and oogonia develop in oval or linear longitudinally elongated sori; antheridia cylindrical or clavate, 18–24 × 27–30 μm; oogonia obovate, 50–60 × 65–80 μm. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Note: Plants do not adhere to paper when dried. Along with advertisement and advice from dieticians/practitioners, the consumption of omega-3 has expanded among Turkish customers, with a market of 25 million Euro and with more than 4.5 million of the 100 products containing omega-3 sold in 2012 (Finance, 2013). These are essential to maintain the balanced production of hormone-like substances that help regulate many important physiological functions, including blood pressure, blood clotting, nerve transmission, inflammatory and allergic responses, functions of the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and the production of other hormones (Calder, 2015; American Pregnancy, 2014). Thallus in transverse section 180–200 μm thick. 1999). and Lobophora variegata were the dominant species in the entire studied area. Dictyol E, pachydictyol A, and dictyodial, antifeedant diterpenes of the brown algae Dictyota spp. Margins of the blades entire or with sparse short spines. Central and South America, Atlantic islands, Caribbean islands, western Atlantic, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. In shallow reefs (less than 5 m deep) and back reefs, Halimeda opuntia, Sargassum spp., Turbinaria spp., Padina spp., and Stypopodium zonale tend to be the commonest species. The thallus is eight to 25 cm high, dichotomously divided into two flat … (A) Laminaria, Fucus, Porphyra, Volvox (B) Gelidium, Porphyra, Dictyo The dolabellane-type diterpenes are also frequently encountered in seaweeds of the genus Dictyota. In cross-section, cells of the upper layers smaller than those of lower one. Cross-section at margin of the thallus. In cross-section, blade comprised of three layers of rectangular, thick-walled cells, 100–110 μm thick at the basal portion. On vertical wall of experimental tank at Sanya Tropical Marine Biological Research Station, April 2012. E. Paige Stout, Julia Kubanek, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010, Dolabellanes (Figure 5) are constituents of mollusks, coelenterates, and brown algae, and they are also found in terrestrial mold, liverwort, and higher plant species.66 Several dolabellanes have shown potential for pharmaceutical application, exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antimalarial activities.66. The diterpene dictyol C, isolated from a Mediterranean Dictyota, inhibited the growth of biofilm-forming bacteria at a low concentration (EC50 30 mM) (Viano et al., 2009). Distribution. Growing on rocks and dead corals in the middle to lower intertidal zones at sites exposed to moderate wave action. April 2012. 2, 3, 4. Dictyota belongs to a large order in brown algae (class Phaeophyceae). Dictyota was collected from American Samoa on July, 16, 2014. Each oogonium contains one egg cell, is fertilized externally, and develops to form the sporophyte. Growing on rocks and dead corals in the middle intertidal (tidal pools) to subtidal zones exposed to moderate wave action. Hellio, De La Broise, et al. In radial section, cortex comprised of 2–3 layers of pigmented cells, medulla comprised of one layer of central, large colorless cells (22.5–75 μm wide, 45–100 μm thick). 3. March 2012. Branches near the base 3–4 mm wide, tapering slightly from the base upwards, 0.6–2.5 mm wide. In habitat, epiphytic on red calcareous alga. Rhizoids issuing from margins and ventral side of basal portions of the thallus. Of these, 303 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against six strains of Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 8–16 μg/mL, while 300 only showed moderate activity against strain EMRSA-16 with an MIC value of 8 μg/mL. Thallus bushy, 8–15 cm high. Oogonia are near to obovate, about 60 μm high and 40 μm in diameter. and Firmicutes bacteria (Bacillus aquimaris and Bacillus subtilis). Othmani et al. 4. Dictyota spp. The corals are more diverse with 12 species, the most common being A. palmata, D. clivosa, P. astreoides and P. porites. Rhizoids numerous descending from the lowermost cells of the thallus, 22.5–35 μm in diameter, 900 μm long, moniliform, terminating in lobed holdfast, matted together, light brownish color. Thus these sulfated polysaccharides seem to have antinociceptive properties for peripheral pain while no or weak diminution of pain sensation via the central nervous system was reported. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027721000038, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124186972000052, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027721000105, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444513885500059, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128119631000044, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128027721000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124080621000147, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444513885500047, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128021477000693, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080453828006523, The coral reefs of the Dominican Republic, Common Marine Algae of Hainan Island (Guidebook), Coral Reef Marine Plants of Hainan Island, Lipids, Fatty Acids, Glycolipids, and Phospholipids, G. Wielgosz-Collin, ... A. Couzinet-Mossion, in, Gosch et al., 2012; McDermid and Stuercke, 2003, Bernardo A.P. (2013) have shown than two fucale species, namely, Sargassum horneri (cultivated) and Stephanocystis hakodatensis (previously named Cystoseira hakodatensis—wild growing) analyzed from October 2008 to June 2009 had maximum TL content in January 2009, 14% and 16% dw, respectively. Branches strap-shaped, 3–5(–7) mm wide, 85–150(–200) μm thick, terminal branches slightly twisted. Even though no suppliers for marine algae are present, white fish oil, cod oil, and omega-3 fish oil are currently being marketed in Turkey. Unsaturated fatty acids from this alga also showed AF properties. Interestingly, the hot plate test effect was only significant at the higher dose of sulfated polysaccharides suggesting a less potent effect on central nervous system-mediated pain for this compound (Coura et al., 2012). Although Lobophora belongs to a marine algal family (Dictyotaceae) that produces a large array of secondary metabolites, it has received little attention compared to other genera, such as Dictyota, in terms of natural compounds isolation and characterization. Branching irregularly dichotomous. and Halimeda spp. Four novel dolabellane diterpenoids, 293–296, were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota sp. 2. Thallus coriaceous, flabelliform, with entire or shallowly split margins when young, senescent thalli split into many narrow segments, yellowish-brown, olive-greenish brown to dark-brown color when dried, with markedly regular concentric zones of reproductive sori on both sides of each narrow line of colorless hairs, 5.3–12 cm high, to 18 cm broad. Surface cells arranged in longitudinal rows. Hwang, H.-S. Kim, and Y. Lee. They inhabit in both freshwater … P. Déléris, ... J.-M. Bard, in Seaweed in Health and Disease Prevention, 2016. Marine brown algae of the genus Dictyota, belonging to the family Dictyotaceae, are mainly distributed in subtropical and tropical oceans [ 1 ]. Margins entire or sometimes split. Vaughaniella stage present. Surface cells rectangular, 45–50 μm long, 20–25 μm broad. Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia (Arabian Gulf, Sri Lanka), Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia), Pacific islands. Lightly calcified on the upper surface only. Newly formed blades of P. minor and strap-shaped blades of Vaughaniella stage. The diverse array of functionalities and stereocenters has made dolabellanes a challenge for synthetic chemists, who have helped to establish the absolute configurations of these natural products.66 Several distinct strategies have been tackled, with macrocyclization as the key reaction.66 Although macroalgal dolabellane diterpenes exhibit a range of pharmacologically relevant activities, no dolabellane metabolite has been pursued so far for further pharmaceutical development. Lobes fan-shaped, flat with in-rolled outer margins. 2. Segments between dichotomies 1.0–3.5 cm long. The plant body of Dictyota is long, dichotomously branched, flattened, and brown in color. Habit. In contrast, in Playa El Chivo (very close to Havana City, and heavily polluted by sewage) the wet biomass values in August 1997 at 10–20 m were close to 0.8 kg m−2. In transverse section, medullary cells rectangular, 30–50 × 37.5–70 μm; cortical cells square, transversely elongated, 10–17 × 17–45 μm. Taniguchi, Shiraishi, Kurata, and Suzuki (1989) reported a spatane diterpene from Dilophus okamurai that inhibits metamorphosis of abalone larvae at 5–10 ppb. Range: Circumtropical Natural Environment: Generally found along rocky shorelines where it attains a 12 inch height having flat Y-shaped blades. Outer margins in-rolled. com.). inhibited the settlement of larvae from the bryozoan B. neritina (Schmitt, Hay, & Lindquist, 1995, Schmitt, Lindquist, & Hay, 1998). Two of them (D. acutiloba and D. sandvicensis) were collected on O’ahu Island (Hawaii) and the others in Australia. Sporangial, oogonial, and antheridial sori scattered over the surface of the thallus (except the basal portion and margins). and Dictyota spp. Lamouroux. In shaded site. 1. Seaweeds belong to a group of plants known as algae. The plant body of Dictyota is long, dichotomously branched, flattened, and brown in color. Sporangia spherical, to 80 μm in diameter, on one-celled stalk, projecting. The basal part of the thallus is rough and thick due to coarse hairs. P.M. Alcolado, ... M. Sosa, in Latin American Coral Reefs, 2003. 3. Distribution. This mat was partially covered by a red slimy coat of an as yet unknown composition (Úrsula Rehfeld, per. The families Sargassaceae and Dictyotaceae produce two-thirds of all secondary metabolites discovered from brown algae (Blunt, Copp, Munro, Northcote, & Prinsep, 2011). Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Description: This genus contains several species which are difficult to identify. The gametophyte forms sex organs in the male and female sori; female sori are deep brown, appearing as spots on both sides of the thallus, containing 25–50 oogonia arranged in rows with sterile oogonia at the margins. Sporangia spherical, tetrahedrally divided, 65–80 μm diameter, dark brown; solitary or in groups, not surrounded by sterile paraphyses, on dorsal surface of the thallus. (2012) with sulfated polysaccharides obtained from the green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides. Oogonial sori scattered; oogonia oval, 40 × 50 μm. Thallus prostrate, overlapping, compact, or loosely clumped, relatively fragile, light brown, sometimes greenish, iridescent, to 20 cm high. Surface cell rectangular, 12–18(–27) μm wide and 24–50(–75) μm long, in regular rows. Tetrasporangia obovate, (50–)100–110(–140) μm long and 70–90(–118) μm in diameter, in continuous groups or scattered in concentric lines distal to every hair band on the outer surface. Colorless hairs arranged in concentric narrow bands on both surfaces of the blades. In transverse section, blade 180–250(–270) μm thick, comprised of cortex of a single cell layer and medulla of several cell layers; cortical cells 20–25 μm long, 15–20 μm wide; medullary cells 40–70 μm across. Low values of dry biomass between 0.01 and 0.21 kg m−2 (with a maximum wet biomass of 0.6 kg m−2) were found at the above mentioned reefs of Juan García, Cantiles, and Diego Pérez keys in the spring of 1987 and the summer of 1988. Furthermore, 313 and 314 showed potent activity against DNA damage and cytotoxicity against WI-38, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines as well as antioxidant activity using ABTS and erythrocytes hemolysis. Phaeophycophyta: The brown algae belong to this division. Scientific Name. Growing on middle intertidal, low intertidal, and upper subtidal rocks and dead corals exposed to moderate wave action. Species are predominantly found in tropical and sub-tropical seas, and are known to contain numerous chemicals (diterpenes) which have potential medicinal value.As at the end of 2017, some 237 different … Habit of pressed old specimen. All these reproductive organs borne on the upper surface of thalluses. Members of this order generally prefer warmer waters than other brown algae. In this study, methanolic extracts of six marine algae belong to Rhodophyceae (Corallina officinalis), Phaeophyceae (Cystoseira barbata, Dictyota dichotoma,Halopteris filicina, Cladostephus spongiosus f. Functional group classification is helpful in understanding the distribution of algal com… The individual cells are enclosed by an inner cellulose layer surrounded by an outer pectic layer. The highest values of dry biomass were found to be higher than 0.69 kg m−2 (biomass refers to coral free space). was noticed here. The algae of the genus Dictyota Lamouroux present difficulties in the establishment of clear limits of separation between species.In previous studies, our group has indicated that the diterpenes from Dictyota species may play an important role as taxonomic markers (e.g., De-Paula et al., 2001, 2007a, 2008; Freitas et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 1990, 2001). Morever, the biofouling bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa KNP-3 and Alteromonas sp. Growing loosely or tightly attached to intertidal and subtidal rocks, dead corals, mollusks, epiphytic on Amphiroa foliacea, in moderately to strongly exposed areas. In transverse section, blade 140–165 μm thick; cortical cells square-roundish, densely pigmented, medullar cells rectangular, slightly longitudinally elongated, with thin cell walls. (2003) isolated lobophorolide from Lobophora variegata, a metabolite active against marine fungi. Sporangia (50 μm in diameter), scattered. Similar results were obtained by Ribeiro et al. and Avrainvillea spp.) Habit. Habit (in aquarium). Tetrasporangia oval, 40–60 μm in diameter, 60–110 μm high, densely grouped in sori. Thalassia testudinum beds with algae of the orders Siphonocladales, Caulerpales, and many species of red algae of the family Rhodomelaceae dominate in reef lagoons. In addition, two dolastane-type diterpenes, 313–314, were isolated from the brown alga D. dichotoma (Ayyad et al., 2011). Hairs develop in concentric bands on the upper surface of the thallus at intervals of 1.0–3.5 mm. 2. Distribution. 1. Bernardo A.P. Cells from surface view in parallel rows, elongate, 22.5–30 × 65–80 μm, marginal cells 22.5 × 75–105 μm, darkly pigmented. Growing on shores with moderate wave action. Introduction. (2012) isolated dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP) and proline from the surface of F. vesiculosus. Phosphate concentrations were fairly high, and greater than Lapointe's et al. Surface hairs in tufts, scattered. In cross-section of the middle portion, thallus 100 μm thick, medulla comprised of four layers of colorless rectangular cells bound on both sides by a single cortical layer of pigmented cells. Howto Cite this Article. Attachment by fibrous holdfast. In habitat: 1. Hair bands alternated on the upper and lower surfaces, hairs 20 μm in diameter. Margins entire, apices broad, rounded. Attachment by disc-like stupose holdfast to middle intertidal, upper subtidal rocks, dead corals. Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J.V. Alternate zonation of narrow (1.5–2 mm) fertile glabrate band (with nonindusiate tetrasporangia) and the wider (2–3 mm) sterile band. Hainan Island, Luhuitou, November 2010. Habit (cast ashore). Surface cells rectangular, 12–20(–30) μm wide, 30–40 μm long, in longitudinal rows. Thus caulerpin appears to have peripheric and central antinociceptive activities (De Souza et al., 2009). (2010) isolated galactoglycerolipids from Sargassum muticum that inhibited the growth of the bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens, Polaribacter irgensii, and the fungi Halosphaeriopsis mediosetigera, Asteromyces cruciatus, Lulworthia uniseptata, and Monodictys pelagica at 0.75 mg/L. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. KNS-8 were sensitive to the tested compounds. Sargassum is a genus of brown (class Phaeophyceae) macroalgae (seaweed) in the order Fucales. Dictyota is a genus of brown algae; the main compounds isolated from Dictyota in the past have been diterpenes and other non-polar compounds. Fronds of Macrocystis may grow as much as 50 centimetres (20 in) per day, and the stipes can grow 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in a single day. Cryptogamie Algologie 28: 169–190. Dictyota (Dictyotales) is the most commonly found brown alga in European Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea. Medullary colorless cells are rectangular, 125–140 × 70–120 μm. Dictyota bartayresii. Growing on rocks and dead corals in the lower intertidal zone at sites exposed to moderate and strong wave action. In transverse section, the thallus comprised of four cells to 235 μm thick at the basal portion, three cells thick in the middle portion (80–150 μm), and two cells thick in the upper young portion (30–40 μm). They have been isolated from 28 species that belong to the genera Dictyota (16 species), Dilophus Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae, such as Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. On vertical side of dead coral block. Dolastane-type diterpenes, biosynthetically derived from the dolabellane diterpenes, are tricyclic compounds and structurally similar to dolabellanes. These indices did not show any trend with depth. Other compounds such as glycolipids, glycerolipids, free fatty acids or chromanols also emerge as potential AF agents. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the classification of dictyotaceae. da Gama, ... Renato C. Pereira, in, Blunt, Copp, Munro, Northcote, & Prinsep, 2011, Taniguchi, Shiraishi, Kurata, and Suzuki (1989), Kim, Alamsjah, Hamada, Fujita, and Ishibashi (2006), Barbosa, Fleury, Da Gama, Teixeira, & Pereira, 2007, Katsuoka, Ogura, Etoh, Sakata, and Ina (1990), Hirao, Tara, Kuwano, Tanaka, & Ishibashi, 2012, Lachnit, Fischer, Kunzel, Baines, and Harder (2013), Erturk and Tas, 2011; Taskin et al., 2007; Tuney et al., 2007; Haliki et al., 2005, Natural Products Structural Diversity-II Secondary Metabolites: Sources, Structures and Chemical Biology. South America, Atlantic islands, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, South-west Asia, Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan), South-east Asia (Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines), Australia and New Zealand, Pacific islands. 1. Bioassay-guided fraction of the brown algae Canistrocarpus cervicornis resulted in the isolation of two dolastanes, 310–311, and a seco-dolastane diterpene, 312 (Bianco et al., 2009), and 310 can inhibit hemolysis as well as fibrinogen or plasma clotting induced by Lachesis muta venom (Moura et al., 2011). Attachment by stypose discoid holdfast. The dolabellane diterpenes, 290–292 (Barbosa et al., 2004; Barbosa et al., 2003), were isolated from the brown alga Dictyota pfaffii, and 290 exhibited significant antifeedant activity against the herbivorous sea urchin Lytechinus variegates as well as strong antiherpes simplex virus-1 activity in vitro (Barbosa et al., 2007). Dolabellanes 36–39 from the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma in Cortadura (Cádiz, Spain) exhibited mild activity in in vitro cytotoxicity assays against P-388 mouse lymphoma, A549 human lung carcinoma, HT-29 human colon cancer carcinoma, and MEL-28 human melanoma tumor cell lines.67 Dolabellane 37 exhibited IC50 = 1.2 μg ml−1 against P-388 and A549 tumor cell lines and IC50 = 2.5 μg ml−1 against HT-29 and MEL-28 tumor cell lines.67 Relative stereochemical assignments were made upon analysis of a series of NOE difference spectroscopy experiments. Prostrate rhizomes (consisting of four cell layers) are often produced from the stipe. The following brown algae are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). Marginal rhizoids present, often in tufts, to 500–700 μm long. In transverse section, blade to 380 μm thick comprised of 10–13 cell layers at the basal portion, 120–250 μm comprised of 5–6 cell layers in the middle portion, and 2–3 cell layers (60–100 μm thick) in the upper portion of the blade. From the same species, five novel dolastanes, 305–309 (Ioannou et al., 2008), were obtained, and 305 showed moderate cytotoxicity against L16 (11.2 μg/mL) as well as A549 (12.6 μg/mL). In Cuban reefs an increase in the biomass of algae usually takes place between spring and early summer, followed by a reduction in late summer. The short life cycle (less than 3 months) of Dictyota has three overlapping alternation of generations. Branches flat, strap-shaped, (3–)7–15 mm wide, almost of equal width or gradually decreasing in width toward apices, with entire margins or sometimes proliferous, with blunt or emarginated apices. Moreover, Nomura et al.

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