information technology architecture

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Most Web surfers have experienced what designers call the inverse L, which is essentially a navigation system that runs top-level categories--or buckets--horizontally across the top of the screen with secondary and tertiary links listed down the left side. He is a writer, speaker, and consultant. That model describes the rules for how that information should be … As a result, IT professionals are in growing demand to support, manage, and design ever-evolving systems. We try to keep questions as objective as possible. analyse an organisations' business needs and use of information technology; provide detailed information about costs and benefits of various IT solutions; recommend suitable solutions including systems, programs and hardware create architectural plans … Similar to Omnigraffle, Axure is both a wireframing and a diagramming tool, which is very useful for information architects—particularly those who are also interaction designers. People with jobs in these areas typically have college degrees in computer science and/or information systems. Informationstechnik (kurz IT, häufig englische Aussprache [ aɪ tiː ]) ist ein Oberbegriff für die elektronische Datenverarbeitung und die hierzu verwendete Hard- und Software-Infrastruktur. But regardless of who takes on the task, IA is a field of its own, with influences, tools, and resources that are worth investigation. Blending the technical and the visual with a keen sense for organizational structures and usability, IA is a multidimensional field that puts place in space. Information architecture. Text-Based Outlines: Sometimes information architects want to show architecture as indented text outlines and lists. When a designer sketches a top level menu to help users understand where they are on a site, he is also practicing information architecture. Basic Rules for Usability Test Scripts The programmer establishes goals, collects and analyzes facts, uncovers and tests concepts, determines needs, and states the problem. What is the flow of users through our site? And we do need them. And we do need them. Between the analysis and synthesis stages exists what William Pena, author of Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer, calls the synthesis gap. While it won't go very deep, it will give a good overview of the process of design as it applies to human-web interaction. Page Schematics: Black and white line drawings or block diagrams to hand off to a visual designer. Technology architects design and plan the implementation of new systems and technology. 4. Two particularly valuable areas of library science for information architects are the art of cataloguing, and archival science. with check boxes for Very Easy, Easy, Not Easy or Difficult, Difficult, and Very Difficult. The Information Architecture Institute is a non profit organization dedicated to furthering the field of information architecture. More information available at: https://www.asist.org/. Shel Kimen is an information designer for Razorfish, Inc., New York, a strategic digital communications company. Standardization of technology is a common part of IT architecture projects. Web firms can't hire information architects fast enough, but, while the field has been around and growing for years in software, engineering, and library science, very few people understand exactly what information architects do and why we need them in Web design. They have a big interest in new and emerging technologies and can easily plan for the future using logical thinking. IT Architecture: Standardizing Technology. Enterprise technology architecture (ETA) in IT refers to a set of standards or guidelines for an IT infrastructure. It stems from traditional architecture, which is made up of architectural programming and architectural planning. The Schools Christina currently advises startups and writes at her blog, Dan Klyn has been working as an information architect for nearly twenty years in agencies, e-commerce organizations, and non-profits. Anything an IA can do to ask as many questions and get as many answers up-front will ultimately help the process. Interactive, Semi-Functional Prototyping: In some cases, information architects are responsible for outlining or storyboarding functional prototypes, and in others they actually build prototypes with HTML, Flash, Director, or PowerPoint. In addition to these difficulties, there are standard issues, such as understanding--and defining--the target audience, determining how much and what type of information should be on a page, knowing when it's important to lean more toward visual cues (MSNBC) or more toward text (Yahoo), and choosing a content-based or contextual navigation system. In a library, for example, information architecture is a combination of the catalog system and the physical design of the building that holds the books. It is the responsibility of the design firm and architect to ask the right questions, and it's client's responsibility to understand what they are trying to build. At its most basic, information architecture is the construction of a structure or the organization of information. The Skills You Need In large projects, a space planner manages this gap by taking the program document and defining the space to be designed, aligning the rooms, and assigning priorities to the interior structural elements. The book is essentially a checklist for IAs, along with an overview of how IA and UX work together. Removing or mistyping even a single number in a financial transaction is easy to do and potentially disastrous. It is important for them to be present during all three phases and to get a client's objectives firsthand. This kind of work is often done in spreadsheets, mapping out field types and relationship requirements, but it is sometimes implemented directly into a CMS. Basic Rules for Usability Test Scripts Specific details are provided below. Information architecture results in the creation of site maps, hierarchies, categorizations, navigation, and metadata. The programmer's responsibilities include: client interviews, research and understanding of emerging technologies, reviews of case studies, budget planning, scheduling long-term deadlines, anticipating the future, and formulating functional requirements. Information technology — Big data reference architecture — Part 3: Reference architecture Cataloguing is the process of creating metadata and assigning it to content in order to find it again in the future. Also referred to as content modeling, this work may be shared with a content strategist. Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data. World IA Day 2020. The role requires a high degree of technical expertise as well as business understanding, as IT architects determine which information technology investments will yield the best return, both in terms of hard costs and productivity benefits. A well-designed information system rests on a coherent foundation that supports responsive change—and, thus, the organization’s agility—as new business or administrative initiatives arise. Some of these links are graphic, some are text, some are mixed into content areas, and others are highlighted on the side. Five is a good number for choices, leaving room for a neutral response. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. While it's important to break from these standards, it's also important to note that this is what people have gotten used to, and deviations are sometimes extremely confusing--even if they offer better solutions. License: Creative Commons CCZero. It is used everywhere from traditional libraries to museums, science labs, and hospitals. How do I become an information architect? They keep notes about what might be confusing and design prototypes specifically for user testing in order to isolate issues in navigation, process, and understandability. Architectural technology is the application of scientific knowledge to the construction of buildings and other structures. information technology; technology architect. The Open Group’s Architecture Framework suggests there are four layers, namely Business, Data/Information, Application, and Technology. The Skills You Need How is that information presented back to the user? More information available at: http://www.iainstitute.org/. Methods such as Big Data mining, Machine Learning, Cloud Computing, and Artificial Intelligence are increasingly being used to solve a variety of business problems and decisions. It has roots in numerous fields and methodologies that UX practitioners still draw on today, including library science, cognitive psychology, and architecture. The Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T) is an association not only for web architects, but also librarians, researchers, developers, and professors and students. On February 22, 2020, the 9th annual World IA Day will be held across the globe. The Information Architecture Institute (IAI) in a non-profit organization, dedicated to promoting the “concept, craft, and community of information architecture.” They offer volunteer opportunities, discussion forums, promotion for local IA groups, and a variety of ways to network and learn from other IAs in the field. While this may fall into a content strategist’s purview, it’s a decision that every IA should weigh in on, whether the IA is also the content strategist, or a designer. Envisioning Information, Visual Display of Quantitative Information, and Visual Explanations by Edward R. Tufte There are benefits to both, and the IA may also be able to consider alternatives that will achieve both goals, such as putting both the FAQ and the Help page under the Product section. Anything an IA can do to ask as many questions and get as many answers up-front will ultimately help the process. Information architecture, as we know it today, began around the 1970s, far before the rise of web and mobile apps or the popularization of user experience design. (Although sometimes, depending on the firm, the space planner is also the programmer or designer.). In Web design, a person who helps develop programs and also plans is an information architect. So, a good place to start is to look for the ways sites are, and are not, consistent. Axure’s goal is intended for rapidly creating wireframes and prototypes of websites and applications. It has been proven that people like to click, and when users are confused, they start scanning pages for whatever clickable links they can find. Like any discipline, industry standards set the pace, for good or bad, for most mainstream development. Read the Complete Beginner’s Guide to Interaction Design. After conducting this research, an IA will begin to analyze the data. Web firms can't hire information architects fast enough, but, while the field has been around and growing for years in software, engineering, and library science, very few people understand exactly what information architects do and why we need them in Web design. Information technology architecture is the process of development of methodical information technology specifications, models and guidelines, using a variety of Information Technology notations, for example UML, within a coherent Information Technology architecture framework, following formal and informal Information Technology solution, enterprise, and infrastructure architecture processes. IBM Ease of Use Web site--User Centered Design Architectural programming is an objective approach to understanding the nature of the task so that a specific problem can be identified as something for space planners and designers to solve. But even if they aren't usability experts, IAs usually think about usability testing as they are planning the site structure. This is why sites such as Amazon.com have so much redundancy. Sometimes testing is one-on-one, with a moderator asking an individual tester to go through the process of using a Web site--asking questions along the way about what they like and don't like, what is easy and difficult, and how it could be improved. Some of these links are graphic, some are text, some are mixed into content areas, and others are highlighted on the side. Poor secondhand interpretations can be a project's death. Some clients don't understand the expense--and professional information architects are expensive. Attention to detail and a strong sense of organization are the most obvious skill requirements for a position in IA. Architecture can and should be an extremely collaborative and iterative process, which evolves somewhat organically in as much structure that can be defined up-front as possible. The primary duties of an IT architect are to design and maintain computer networks. A standardized technology reduces complexity and offers benefits such as cost savings through economy of scale, ease of integration, improved efficiency, greater support options, and simplification of future control. • IT Technology Tools • Network Services • Program/Project Management • Social Networking Services • Systems Management • Technology Dev. However, information architecture draws on some different elements of cognitive psychology to influence how we structure information. What is the future of IA in Web design? Maybe the hardest part of information architecture is to help identify a focus--a necessary component of intuitive form and function. Architecture Management ist nicht in der offiziellen Liste der ITIL-2011-Prozesse zu finden, aber ITIL trifft Aussagen zu Architecture Management im einem Kapitel zu "technologie-bezogenen Aktivitäten", und ein klar definierter Architektur-Blueprint ist von zentraler Bedeutung für eine IT-Organisation. Here are some of the key elements of cognitive psychology information architects most value: Explaining information architecture from Dan Klyn on Vimeo. Enterprise Architecture helps organizations formulate business strategy through outlining the framework needed for IT delivery. Both programs lead to information architecture depending on the way a student structures coursework. The program has traditional information technology offerings (Introduction to Computational Media and Elements of Visual Language) as well as flexible build-your-own theoretical studies (New Media and Interpersonal Behavior and Information Contours). At its most basic, information architecture is the construction of a structure or the organization of information. Information architecture is the term used to describe the structure of a system, i.e the way information is grouped, the navigation methods and terminology used within the system. Build a Resume Now. The architecture specifies the hardware, software, access methods and protocols used throughout the system. Interactive, Semi-Functional Prototyping: In some cases, information architects are responsible for outlining or storyboarding functional prototypes, and in others they actually build prototypes with HTML, Flash, Director, or PowerPoint. How do information architects fit into a Web team? CITA - Centre for Information Technology and Architecture. XMind is yet another mapping software, with the added benefit of allowing IAs to save their maps to Evernote. Information Architects by Richard Wurman Financial Transactions In a library, for example, information architecture is a combination of the catalog system and the physical design of the building that holds the books. It stems from traditional architecture, which is made up of architectural programming and architectural planning. With today's complex, superfly, dynamically driven database Web sites and networks, information architects have become critical to--if not the cornerstone of--most large Web design projects. Information architects also bridge architecture with development and work with technologists, database engineers, and HTML coders. Some firms base their definitions on software design, while others take a more traditional, physical structure architecture approach. When designing a new site, it's always best to start with all the pieces, though this is seldom the case. Also, due to the complex nature of information architects' work--representing sites with thousands of pages on 11-by-17 pieces of paper and presentation boards, director prototypes, and HTML schematics, for example--clients are sometimes confused and unable to see the value. Richard Saul Wurman, best known today for being one of the creators of the Technology Entertainment and Design (TED) conferences, coined the term "information architecture" at an American Institute of Architects (AIA) conference in 1976. It's impossible to say what works best, because it's relative to the overall environment and work process. It's also important for information architects to work closely with visual designers, helping to maintain the balance between form and function. Until then, other options include Dreamweaver, Photoshop, and Visio, but ultimately it depends on what type of document you are trying to make. Information architects can attend conferences, and join a variety of associations and community groups intended to help promote the field and those who work in it. How to Make Sense of Any Mess: Information Architecture for Everybody. Nick is a 12-year veteran of the web and considered a web craftsman by trade. What is information architecture? More information available at: http://aneventapart.com/. Similarly, Rennessler Polytechnic Institute offers a master in communications, a master in interactive arts, and a graduate certificate in human computer interaction with emphases in writing, design, or technology. Technology Architecture - target services (a description of the service portfolios required also known as an Organization-Specific Framework) Technology Architecture - change requests and/or extensions or amendments to be incorporated in an organization-specific Architecture Continuum; Step 5 The University of California at Berkeley, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Illinois, and Stanford University are all great places to start. Cognitive psychology is the study of how the mind works, and what mental processes take place there, so it’s not surprising that it influences both the interactions we design and the way we architect information. It isn't that managers are inept at translating clients desires, but architects have special architectural questions that a business manager or producer might not be able to intuit. He was a graphic designer and an architect, and it was from architecture that the field of IA was born. Along the way we’ll share the history, contributors, and tools often used in creating an information architecture. It's impossible to say what works best, because it's relative to the overall environment and work process. 1. In this article we’ll discuss what information architecture really is, and why it’s a valuable aspect of the user experience process. Is that information helping the customer, and driving decisions. An information architect will generally do a variety of activities as part of a UX project team. It isn't so important how one organizes information so much as that the organization is consistent. Billed as an “information architecture validation software,” Treejack lets IAs input a site hierarchy, set up tasks, and recruit users. To learn about the project’s audiences, IAs need access to the results of usability tests, card sorting exercises, stakeholder interviews, and user interviews, just to name a few. He is also the author of. Building interfaces that are modular enough for a user to customize is extremely difficult, and setting a structure so that a user can select what he or she wants is even more difficult. Unlike content strategy, which is accomplished by content strategists, or interaction design, which is accomplished by designers, information architect is very infrequently a job title. Both programs lead to information architecture depending on the way a student structures coursework. Regardless of title, here are some of the most influential people influencing the IA field: Information Architecture takes a good deal of mental work, and so some IAs prefer to use nothing but paper and pen. Based on the information gathered during research and the decisions made during hierarchy creation, an IA will sketch out certain key screens in order to demonstrate how a user will interact with the information available. The research results in a program document that specifically outlines the limits of the project and any unique problems. 7. Integrating the complexity of these requirements into a single user-friendly interface is difficult at best. They are usually constructed to look like flowcharts and show how users navigate from one section to another. The information architect is the key person responsible for determining how information across a website or application is displayed and accessed. It is a good idea to not allow users to make changes on the verify page but to send them to an edit screen instead. Completed in 2018 in Venice, Italy. Traditional architectural programming If the company already knows that information architects are important to the design process, chances are they are probably on the hunt for qualified people because there are more positions available than people applying. Some Web design firms have highly compartmentalized departments that separate problem finders from problem planners and problem synthesizers, but flexibility is the key to success. The art and science of organizing and labeling web sites, intranets, online communities, and software to support findability and usability. MindManager is a visual framework, meant to, in MindJet’s words, “promote freeform thinking and quick organization of ideas.” With MindManager’s easy drag-and-drop functionality, information architects can quickly and easily get ideas out, and then organize those ideas into a site map that illustrates their ideas. An organization creating or adapting a Technology Architecture may already mandate the use of a list of approvedsuppliers/products for that organization. Information architecture is a more difficult field to define than many others. Information architects should meet with clients to help define a project's scope, as well as plot the path to meet the objective and work with the designers and technologists to develop engaging and intuitive visual interfaces. She has been online for a very long time and holds a B.A. Good, consistent information architecture will help users build relationships and trust with the technology and product. It is a broad-based term that covers efforts and technologies aimed at designing an architecture for the IT setups that a business uses. More information available at: https://www.w3.org/community/informationarchitecture/. The space planner works with both the programmer and the designer to develop a structure that accommodates the function as well as the form. The world will need a lot more information architects over the next few years. Information architecture is soon going to be about architecting customizable and personalized views of the entire Internet, along with entirely new business and social models to go with it. Unfortunately, the perfect tool hasn't been invented yet. Between the analysis and synthesis stages exists what William Pena, author of Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer, calls the synthesis gap. Design effects architecture as much as architecture effects design. It also informs business and operating models, and leads the enterprise responses to disruptive forces such as changes to markets, customers, supply chains and technology. 10. Information architecture is a more difficult field to define than many others. For example, if an organization wants users to associate their FAQ with their Help page, they might put both under the Support section. Data modeling pairs an IA with developers in order to determine structured content types that represent user needs, business logic and requirements, and internal editorial practices. The organization EuroIA actually runs a number of events across Europe annually, but EuroIA Summit is by far the most impressive. Members of the community can pose questions or discussion points and engage in conversation with other IAs around the world using the online forum. IT architecture is a series of … It's important for any company that builds information architecture into its structure to support that structure by educating clients on its value. Some Web design firms have highly compartmentalized departments that separate problem finders from problem planners and problem synthesizers, but flexibility is the key to success. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an intelligent 3D model-based process that gives architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) professionals the insight and tools to more efficiently plan, design, construct, and manage buildings and infrastructure. Good, consistent information architecture will help users build relationships and trust with the technology and product. We mentioned earlier the importance of making decisions as to where information lives. Personalization requires an intelligent back-end to filter demographic information and track user preferences in order to provide content that is relevant to an individual user. Louis helped create the profession of information architecture, co-authoring its leading text, and was president of its best-known consulting firm. They may present the information to the rest of the team as a spreadsheet or a set of recommendations, or even as a set of user personas that will showcase who the typical user is, what their goals are, and how they might approach the application. For advanced information architects, this book may be a little too basic, but for anyone looking to get started, this has all the information you need. He is the author of numerous web design-related articles for various publications. Technology architecture concentrates on logistical and location problems related to hardware location, IS management capabilities, and the sites where the different parts of the IS are used. Current Issues in Web Usability, a biweekly column by Dr. Jakob Nielsen, principal, Nielsen Norman Group, covers everything from bandwidth issues to micropayments. Simply put, IT architects are strategists who solve business problems using technology. They keep notes about what might be confusing and design prototypes specifically for user testing in order to isolate issues in navigation, process, and understandability. OmniGroup’s product can do diagrams, process charts, quick page-layouts, website mockups, and more. The deliverable that is most commonly associated with this work is a site map, which illustrates the hierarchy of content across a website. In order to create this hierarchy, the IA needs to consider what the user expects to see, as well as what content the organization wants to connect. Attention to detail and a strong sense of organization are the most obvious skill requirements for a position in IA. For some information architects, wireframes are the best way to represent the connections between different screens and identify how the site will work from a practical perspective. The information technology architect applies IT resources to meet specific business requirements. Architects use computer design software to model and test network plans prior to implementation. Common tasks include research, navigation creation, wireframing, labeling, and data modeling. Materials Architectural materials such as composite fibre, glass, carbon concrete, steel and wood. In the book, which is more of a history than a how-to, Morrogh talks about the purpose of creating information environments that are beautiful, valuable, and easy to use. Presentation is as much about showing information as it is about showing information in a way that is understandable to each client's specific Web knowledge and thought process. Information Technology Jobs and Careers . It's important for any company that builds information architecture into its structure to support that structure by educating clients on its value. IA. Usability testing ranges from observing how users react to color palettes to timing how long it takes someone to find a log out button. Unfortunately, the perfect tool hasn't been invented yet. Through this research, information architects are able to learn what people will do with an application, how people will use information provided by the application, and what mental models the users have when they use the application.

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