By 1981, they were producing 1,200,000 wet tonnes seaweed annually. Although wild brown seaweeds can be found in large quantities in many parts of the world, the alginate industry relies heavily on cultivated seaweeds rather than natural sources. Figure 1.4. Ingredients: Purified Water, Ecklonia Maxima Extract, glucose, glucose oxidase, lactoperoxidase, citric â¦ Plants are smaller where summer water temperatures rise to 19°C, but grow best where the temperature does not rise above 15°C. Cho et al. In chronic inflammation, proinflammatory cytokines induce MMPs that degrade the extracellular matrix and contribute for several inflammatory disorders. ROS stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinases that phosphorylate transcription factor AP-1, which in turn results in upregulation of MMPs that contribute for the degradation of skin collagen ultimately leading to skin ageing (Fisher et al., 1996; Rittié and Fisher, 2002). (2007). In exposed coastal regions, L. trabeculata is the dominant community component of the subtidal rocky bottom between Arica (18°S) and Chiloe (42°S), growing at depths between 0 and 20 m (Villouta and Santelices, 1984; Vasquez, 1989). The SEANOL ®-brand Ecklonia cava Extracts such as SEANOL ®-P (a.k.a., SEAPOLYNOL ®) and SEANOL ®-F are rich in special class of health-supporting phlorotannins called "eckols". Probable repeating structure of CMAP: [l-iduronic acid (α1 → 2), mesotartaric acid (3 → 1), glyoxylic acid (1 → )]n. Phlorotannins are the group of tannins and are found only in brown algae. Costa-Mugica et al. and contains a variety of compounds that play diverse biological and ecological roles. After successfully developing kelp-based products for use in agriculture, he discovered that sea kelp could have benefits for skin too. Two other kelp species belonging to the genus Ecklonia (i.e., E. cava and E. stolonifera) are also being subjected to culture development in Korea. In the latter, the species often occurs in bloom, forming thick mats on reef flats. Regular intake of antioxidants would be an useful strategy to combat UVB induced photodamage. Similarly, phlorotannins namely fucofuroeckol-A and eckol that are derived from Eisenia bicyclis had shown MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities in HT1080 cells. There are three main species of Laminaria seaweeds, i.e., L. digitata, L. hyperborea, and Laminaria saccharina. Himaya, in Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 2011. Ascophyllum nodosum, which has a total biomass of 159,000 tons in southern New Brunswick in the Atlantic part of Canada, is also harvested from the wild, albeit with an exploitation limit of 17% of the total biomass (Ugarte et al., 2006). And also they have shown that the DNA damage due to UVB irradiation was also inhibited by 57.8% with the treatment of 50 μM dieckol. Consequently, no work has yet been reported on the antiallergic capacity of seaweeds outside Asia, or on other structural groups of algal phenols, including phlorotannins like fucols, phlorethols, or fuhalols. In addition, the phlorotannin derivatives could attenuate inflammatory response via MAPK pathway in chronic articular diseases. Common structures in fucoidans from brown algae. Fucodiphlorethol G (Fig. One product currently being marketed is prepared from the stipes of Ecklonia maxima from South Africa . At present, Sargassum is not subjected to mass cultivation, but efforts to develop farming technologies are under way. Thus, E. cava is useful for preventing the development of diabetic liver fibrosis (Kim et al., 2005). The main three groups include interstitial collagenases that have affinities toward collagen types I, II, and III (MMP-1, MMP-8, and MMP-13); the stromelysins with specificity for laminin, fibronectin, and proteoglycans (MMP-3, MMP-10, and MMP-11); and the gelatinases that effectively cleave type IV and type V collagen (MMP-2 and MMP-9; Nelson et al., 2000). Since the 1980s, major change in the alginate industry took place with the emergence of producers in China, initially in the production of low-cost, low-quality alginate for the local industrial markets from locally cultivated Saccharina japonica. 25g. Vetlomarâ¢ Allergy Itch Relief Cream, Shampoo, and Hot Spot Spray offer relief from itchy, irritated and inflamed skin in animals. Please click "Know More" below, you really need to be aware of the facts ! Rothman et al. The commercially important species of brown algae are large in size and their main genus include Laminaria, Macrocystis, Ascophyllum, Lessonia, Durvillaea, Ecklonia, Saccharina, etc. Alginate, sometimes shortened to “algin,” is present in the cell walls of brown seaweeds, with those growing in more turbulent conditions usually having a higher alginate content than those in calmer waters. For alginate extraction, they are regarded as the raw material of last resort. Presently, the culture technology being developed is still small and laboratory scale, and research and development works are needed to successfully demonstrate its viability on a commercial scale. R 149.00. Vetlomarâ¢ Allergy Itch Relief products contain CEM-K, a patented 100% natural active ingredient (Ecklonia maxima) derived from sea kelp.It is clinically proven to be highly effective in relieving swelling and itchiness of the skin. is a member of the genus . L. digitata grows in the upper sublittoral zone in rocky, wave-exposed localities, and it is well adapted to this because of its flexible stipe and divided blades. Four species of kelp are found around the South African coast, with Ecklonia maxima being the most familiar, often being washed up on beaches following heavy storms. Regarding the individual species, Ascophyllum seaweeds are mainly harvested in Ireland, Norway, France, and the United Kingdom, whereas Durvillaea is harvested in Australia and Chile. Some of them are exported, and some used internally to produce fertilizer. In the late 1980s, production fell as some farmers switched to the more lucrative but risky farming of shrimp. 33.2) were isolated from E. cava by Ryu et al. The gelatinases that include MMP-2 and MMP-9 promote UV-induced skin damage. Recent studies recommend that the polyphenolic compounds derived from marine algae have preventive properties against human diseases including cancer, coronary heart diseases, and other allergies (Shibata et al., 2003), hence suggesting the brown algae as potential medicinal food. Know More. Ultraviolet B (UVB; 280–320 nm) radiation of the sun is highly oxidative and directly triggers photodamage of the skin cells. These seaweeds usually grow in cold waters in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information: cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning. Similarly, dieckol and eckol isolated from Ecklonia stolonifera have inhibited the expression of MMP-1 in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell, in vitro (Joe et al., 2006). However, the effects of this compound on Ca-mineralization of osteoblasts were yet to be investigated. Dieckol from marine brown alga, E. cava, has been reported to suppress LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in murine BV2 microglia, thus establishing dieckol as a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent (Jung et al., 2009). A detailed account of the various biological activities including free radical scavenging activity of phlorotannins from Ecklonia species has been reported earlier. Structures of phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava (1: dieckol; 2: 1-(3′,5′-dihydroxyphenoxy)-7-(2″,4″,6″-trihydroxyphenoxy)-2,4,9-trihydroxydibenzo-1,4-dioxin). PubMed:The effect of seaweed Ecklonia maxima extract and mineral nitrogen â¦ Experimental cultivation of Ecklonia in South Africa has been successful, with growth of young plants on rafts. L. hyperborea is also found on the west coast of Ireland, the Outer Hebrides, and the Orkney Islands in Scotland. Durvillaea is found only in the Southern Hemisphere and grows best in rough water, near the top of the sublittoral zone, on rocky shores or offshore reefs. (1997) and Hupel et al. Se-Kwon Kim, S.W.A. Some phlorotannins have been identified as the bioactive components in Ecklonia species such as Ecklonia cava, Ecklonia kurome, and Ecklonia stolonifera (Ham et al., 2007). As shown in Table 8.1, most of the phlorotannin compounds have shown more potent antioxidant activities than commercially available antioxidants α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyl-anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). It is suggested that fucoidan could be an agent to promote osteoblast differentiation and has possibility for its application in bone health supplement. About the Experts. Mann (1982) has characterized the association of subtidal large brown algal communities according to the dominant species. It appears that most species belong to Phaeophyceae and particularly to the order Fucales. It was demonstrated that stolonifera, an edible seaweed, has strong antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in vivo. Chemical name: Ecklonia maxima seaweed extract Manufacturer: Kelp Products (Pty) Ltd. P O Box 325 Simonâs Town South Africa (021) 786 2090 2. Laminaria hyperborea is mainly from Norway, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and France. The alginate content is usually low compared with the previously listed genera, and the quality of the alginate is poor. Antibiotics from Algae. They derive their characteristic brown color from the large amounts of the carotenoid fucoxanthin contained in their chloroplasts and the presence of various phaeophycean tannins. (2009) have found that dieckol (100 μM) isolated from E. cava increase the cell survival up to 77.1% in UVB irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). Nevertheless, Sargassum beds can also be harvested sustainably through managed cropping of natural stocks, as suggested by Trono and Tolentino (1993). The resultant hydroperoxide has been proposed to subsequently rearrange to an EAC that leads to cyclopentyl ring formation and an ω3 carbocation.45 The metabolic fates of this carbocation, as observed through these natural product isolations, include trapping with the carboxylate to form the macrolactone of the ecklonialactones (e.g., (24)), trapping with chloride to form the egregiachlorides (e.g., (25)), or loss of an ω2 proton to make the ω2 olefin (26) (Scheme 6). Other genera (Cystoseira, Nereocystis, Alaria, Pterygophora) form equally dense marine forests, principally in the Northern Hemisphere (Dayton, 1985a; Schiel and Foster, 1986). Raw material: Fresh material from Ecklonia maxima 34.26% Additives: Preservatives and inert materials 65.74% 3. Recommendation for ecklonia maxima extract usage levels up to: Recommendation for ecklonia maxima extract flavor usage levels up to. These results suggested that the compounds help to stimulate the osteoblast differentiation at various stages and further confirmed that these compounds might have a therapeutic potential for the patients with osteoarthritis by stimulating production of proteoglycan. Hence, members of brown seaweeds can be recommended as medicinal foods because of the abundant presence of polyphenolic compounds that aids for the betterment of human health. Smaller quantities are also collected in northern Chile. Yimin Qin, in Bioactive Seaweeds for Food Applications, 2018. Phlorotannins derived from brown seaweeds and their chemical structures. In addition, this review highlights that species mainly devoted to direct human food have been investigated. Figure 1.3. Classification of the substance or mixture, GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS), GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements. Table 33.1. Ecklonia species are found in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, but are currently only collected in South Africa. Vasquez, in Coastal Plant Communities of Latin America, 1992. XXXV. Raghavendran, ... S. Rekha, in Functional Ingredients from Algae for Foods and Nutraceuticals, 2013. As it is evident that unregulated expression of MMPs leads to the photoaging, many research groups are emphasizing their research goals to check the ability of marine-derived phlorotannins as potential antiphotoaging agents. Fig. SEANOL ® is a registered trade name of Botamedi Inc (new corporate name of "Livechem Inc" since 2012) and Simply Healthy, LLC that represents dietary phlorotannins of brown algae.. In recent years, alginate producers in China began importing Chilean and Peruvian medium G seaweeds such as Lessonia nigrescens, which can yield alginates suitable for the food ingredient market in the United States and EU. (2011) have shown that brown algae are more tolerant to UVB irradiation due to the presence of phlorotannins. cosmetic ingredient for skin conditioning: Recommendation for ecklonia maxima extract usage levels up to: not for fragrance use. It has been proposed that algae contribute to the maintenance of health through their nutritional benefits. Pharmacokinetic properties. Moreover, Ko et al. Macrocystis pyrifera has been considered the dominant species of subtidal kelp communities along the Chilean coast (Fritsch, 1945; Mann, 1973; Michanek, 1979), which, however, is only true south of 42°S. Efforts to develop technologies for mass cultivation of the giant kelps, Macrocystis spp., were also made in support of the growing global demand for brown seaweeds and fisheries. (2009) extracted fucoidan from brown algae Undaria pinnatifida and showed that fucoidan significantly effects osteoblastic cell differentiation. (2011) have also studied on the photoprotective effect of dieckol from E. cava using human epithelial keratinocytes (HaCat) and have found that dieckol treatment (100 μM) on UVB irradiated cells induces the cell survival up to 88.42%. 1.2 illustrates the main types of brown seaweeds used for alginate production. Prior to that, China had imported its needs from the naturally growing resources in Japan and the Republic of Korea. In this study, it has been suggested that fucofuroeckol-A and eckol exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on the NF-κB expression and also they had a considerable inhibitory effect on AP-1 expression, thus inhibiting the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via blocking the transcription of both NF-κB and AP-1 (Lee, 2010). M. pyrifera, sometimes called the giant kelp, grows best in calm, deep waters in temperatures of 15°C or less. Their structures were assembled from spectrochemical data and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline ecklonialactone A (24). Unlike other species of brown seaweeds, which thrive in cold water, Sargassum species are found worldwide in warm temperate and tropical water temperature regions. Biologically, the division Phaeophyta or brown algae comprises a large assemblage of plants that are classified in about 265 genera with more than 1500 species. It is estimated that the total quantity of wild seaweed stock in the Norwegian seacoast is around 50–60 million tons, with 7 million tons washed to the shoreline annually. On the other hand, reports suggest that some other brown alga contain higher amount of phloroglucinol (Koivikko et al., 2005) and have exhibited several medicinally beneficial effects in vitro. Three genera have been particularly investigated for their activity, Ecklonia, Eisenia, and Sargassum, and mostly two species, E. cava and E. arborea. Two other kelp species belonging to the genus Ecklonia (i.e., E. cava and E. stolonifera) are also being subjected to culture development in Korea. Brown seaweeds are used for the extraction of alginate, which represents a broad group of biomaterials based on the alkali or alkaline earth salts of alginic acid, with the sodium salt being the most widely used. Some species of Sargassum have also become invasive, the most notorious of which is perhaps Sargassum muticum, which has established itself successfully in Atlantic Europe and northeastern Pacific. (2008) cultured Sargassum fusiformis (Hizikia fusiformis) reached a total of 32,000 tons, while Japan produced 7000–8000 tons (dry weight) annually (Ohno and Largo, 2006). It also has a very thick holdfast and stands up underwater, rather like L. hyperborea. Seaweed species containing crude extracts, semipurified fractions, or identified phenol structures are listed in Table 12.1. Table 8.1. Yan et al. 1.4 shows the distribution of wild brown seaweeds around the world. In an earlier study, animals fed with an aflatoxin-contaminated diet, which were treated with pure aflatoxin in combination with L. obstusa and C. prolifera, were found to induce the secretion of serum α-fetoprotein, TNF-α, nitric oxide, IL1, and procollagen III in the liver. (2009), who investigated the potent effect of these compounds on a host of commonly occurring diseases which possess an inflammatory component, including osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, etc. Clinically proven to soothe itchy, irritated skin*. More precisely, this investigation suggested that these phlorotannins interfere with the expressions of NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) which in turn enhances the MMP-1 expression that leads to skin-related damages. In this aspect, phlorotannins serve as one of the most promising natural antioxidants. It soothes itchy, irritated skin and can be used daily as required. All three grow in cold temperate water between 10 and 15°C, and are harvested in the Northern Hemisphere. Ecklonia maxima. Laurencia obtusa (E1) and Caulerpa prolifera (E2) were effective against aflatoxin B1. Moreover, Kang et al. The studies listed focus on both hydroalcoholic extracts and purified fractions of a few eckols. By the mid-1990s, production had started to rise and the reported harvest in 1999 was 4,500,000 wet tonnes. You donât really need more products. Natural Baby Care Check Collection. This in vitro study has revealed the MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities in HT1080 cells, thus suggesting the potentiality of phloroglucinol as an antimetastatic compound. Usually, their molecular sizes range from 126 to 650 kDa (Ragan and Glombitza, 1986). 33.2. Structure of phlorotannin from Ecklonia cava (1: fucodiphlorethol G; 3: triphlorethol-A). Pack size: 25g. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction of Ecklonia stolonifera revealed several phlorotannins, such as phloroglucinol, eckstolonol, eckol, phlorofucofuroeckol A, and dieckol. Fig. Marketing description: 100% natural. Macrocystis angustifolia has been cultivated on an experimental scale in South Africa with a view to eventually growing it for alginate production or abalone feed. However, those early products from China had a low guluronic to mannuronic acid (G/M) ratio, which yields weakly gelling alginates, and their performance is acceptable only for industrial products such as textile printing and paper coating. Ecklonia is the principal component of kelp beds in New Zealand, South Africa, and other parts of the Southern Hemisphere. In France, it is in the upper sublittoral zone and is harvested around the coast of Brittany and adjacent islands. Canopy- and habitat-forming brown algae are often the most productive in many coasts around the world. We explored variation in preharvest conditions in a small study of two Namibian kelps (Laminaria pallida and Ecklonia maxima), and found that iodine content was lowest in sun-bleached blades (514 +/- 42 microg/g), and highest amount in freshly cut juvenile blades (6571 +/- 715 microg/g). The compounds eckol, 2 dieckol, 6,6′-bieckol, and 1-(3′,5′-dihydroxyphenoxy)-7-(2″,4″,6″-trihydroxyphenoxy)-2,4,9-trihydroxydibenzo-1,4,-dioxin (Fig. Ecklonia. Biomass production of natural beds in the tropics is largely unknown but can reach 15.6 kg/m2 (wet weight) in the Philippines (Marquez et al., 2014). The species Ecklonia and Eisenia are the mostly studied brown algae for the biological activities associated with phlorotannins.
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