In Iowa, Sumacs- particularly Smooth Sumac- were important and prevalent medicines among some original cultures native to the state, or those who were known to pass through Iowa regularly. Each compound leaf has between 11 to 31 leaflets, has toothed margins, and a shiny dark green upper surface. Sumac juice, sumac tea, sumac bark is traditionally used to treat women’s diseases. It doesn't matter which one - the Staghorn or Smooth Sumac, as they are the same from an eating perspective. An amplectic pair of … Moerman, Daniel E. Uses (Ethnobotany): The leaves of this plant are a source of black ink. Female plants produce scarlet, hairy terminal fruits in summer and persistent into winter. In North America, the smooth sumac and the staghorn sumac are sometimes used to make a beverage termed "sumac-ade", "Indian lemonade", or "rhus juice". Remember that all edible sumac berries are red and you will never have a problem misidentifying them. They tend to grow close together forming dense thickets. The fruits can be gathered in late summer or early spring, before rains have leached out the desirable flavor from the red hairs of the fruits. 1987 Edible wild plants of the prairie : an ethnobotanical guide. 1990 Edible wild plants of Pennsylvania and neighboring states. It is best only used under the supervision of a qualified practitioner… Rootstocks are easy to propagate, and the plant tolerates harsh soil conditions. Sumac Recipes for Dinner Varieties like smooth and staghorn sumac are well-known landscaping trees in temperate regions because of their hardiness and intense autumn colors. Do not boil the berries, because it will release large quantities of bitter tannic acid into the water. Leaves are alternate, feather-compound, 12–16 inches long, with 15–23 leaflets; central leaf-stem smooth, lacking wings; leaflets with tip pointed, base rounded, margins coarsely toothed; upper surface dark green, shiny; lower surface lighter to conspicuously white, smooth; broken leaves exude a white sticky sap. I use smooth sumac which is similar to staghorn except the berries are smooth without the “hairs”. Even on already-tangy … This common edible plant makes a delicious sour tea(sumac ade) by soaking the berries in cold water for an hour, then straining. A good choice for difficult sites, mass plantings, screening and highways plantings. It is a thicket-forming shrub or small tree with a spreading crown. Apache children ate the bark of smooth sumac as a delicacy (Moerman 1998: 471-473). For example, its edible. In order to make sumac-ade crush the fruits of several clusters worth of berries and soak them in a quart of cold water over night. smooth sumac This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Email me: email@example.com Winged sumac (Rhus copallinum) is a third related species that occurs in roughly the same range as smooth sumac and is identifiable by the “wings” or ridges along the stalks that produce leaves. Overall, it's a wonderful shrub to know, and is very common throughout the eastern United States/Canada, and even into medium range elevation areas of the west.Learn the Most Essential Survival Gear to Carry in the Wilderness:https://legacy-wilderness-academy.ck.page/5471d40bc9Learn How to Build the Ultimate Survival Fire, here:https://legacywildernessacademy.com/ultimate-guide-to-start-a-fireMake sure to sign up for our email list to get the latest updates on our upcoming ONLINE survival course, Fundamentals of Wilderness Survival- Essential Knowledge for Travel in the Backcountry. Smooth sumac is used to treat a large number of ailments, particularly mouth and throat sores, burns, to control diarrhea, and to promote urination. Filter the mixture through a double layer of cloth in order to remove all of the small fruit hairs. 1998 Native American ethnobotany. The Ojibwa took a decoction of fragrant sumac root to stop diarrhea. Smooth sumach was employed medicinally by various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints. Sumac-ade is best when sweetened with maple sugar and can be served hot or cold (Moerman 1998: 471-473). Habitat. Smooth Sumac (Rhus glabra) General Description A large, loose, open-spreading shrub with a flattish crown. • The leaves of the plant were smoked for asthma. Sumacs include about 35 flowering woody North American species in the Rhus genus within the Anacardiaceae family, which also includes cashews, mangos, and pistachios. Smooth sumac is a thicket-forming shrub or small tree with a spreading crown. Some caution should be employed in the use of this species since it can possibly cause skin irritations. The edible … Edible sumacs grow in most regions of southern Canada and the United States in open, sunny, moist habitats such as upland prairies, pastures, meadows, orchard edges, borders and openings of woods, along fences, roads, stream banks and along railroads (Angier  1974: 224; Kindscher 1987: 191). Smooth sumac is a native plant found throughout the eastern United States. Few of the popular common names of the plant are Fragrant sumac, Skunk bush, Stink bush, Sweet sumach, Aromatic sumac, Lemon sumac, Polecatbush, Squawbush, Sweet sumac, squawbush, sweet-scented sumac, winged Sumac, smooth Sumac and staghorn Sumac.  1974 Field guide to edible wild plants (revised & updated). Treehoppers’ environments are defined by their host species. : Timber Press. and making sumacade. The leaves of fragrant, staghorn and smooth sumac were mixed with tobacco and smoked by many tribes of the plains region (Moerman 1998: 471-473). Smooth sumach was employed medicinally by various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints.  The fruit is sour and contains a large seed, but can be chewed (to alleviate thirst) and made into a lemonad-like drink. University Park [Pa.]: Pennsylvania State University Press. So while sumac fruit is not really a favorite wildlife food, it is an important winter survival food. 2 ed. The Cahokia Indians, early agriculturists of Iowa, were thought to have cultivated Sumac along the Upper Mississippi as food, no doubt as medicine. Outstand-ing red fall color. Smooth, Staghorn, and Fragrant sumac are three of the most common species of Rhus, which not only resembled each other, but were used similarly. Make sure you scrape the inner bark skin clean. Smooth sumac often grows in stands and seems to like sunny banks. The First Nation civilization and major economic center known as Cahokia, an extensive city and network of commerce among many ancient peoples in the Midwest, had quite the reach and influence all along the Mississippi River – including the Upper Mississ… Sumac is a deciduous shrub native to North America found in all 48 mainland states of USA and in southern Canada. The Natchez used the root of fragrant sumac to treat boils. Although the exact place of origin of this wild plant is unknown, sumac has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes around Europe, Africa, and the Middle East since medieval times, and was frequently used in Roman kitchens as a source of acidity prior to the arrival of lemons to the area. Generally I cut the blanks for walking sticks a few inches longer than needed , dip the ends in wax and strip the bark. Native Americans also use the fruits of smooth sumac and staghorn sumac (R. glabra and R. typhina) to make a beverage known as sumac-ade, Indian lemonade or rhus juice. Flowers bloom in June and July they are in dense panicles of greenish-red small five petaled flowers. Pinnate leaves, red berries(which are sometimes used as a spice), and a sour taste. Sumac serves primarily as a winter emergency food for wildlife. • Tea made from either the root or leaves was used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and mouth/throat ulcers.
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